Videos of poster lightning presentations

Integrating and increasing awareness of the impact of artificial satellites and space debris on our night sky in astronomy education and outreach.
Maria Sundin (Department of Physics, University of Gothenburg)

One purpose of this paper is to share experience from astronomy education and outreach at the University of Gothenburg where concerns about artificial changes to our night sky are addressed today. For the moment the following courses include topics related to an altering appearance of the night sky: The history of navigation, Ethnoastronomy, Space Exploration, Interstellar Communication, Astronomy and art.

Another purpose of this paper is to seek information and ask for help. All the courses above could be further developed. In the future, home assignments will be included as a part of the examination. All ideas about relevant questions connected to the protection of the dark and quiet skies are appreciated. Suggestions of tasks for the students to aid in spreading information regarding the state of the night sky to the community are welcome.

There is usually a large interest from both students and the media concerning risks of impacts of satellites on the Earth as well as the risk of collisions between artificial objects in space. Included is a discussion of the important factors to raise in outreach or education concerning impacts, as well as questions about ethics, risks, awareness, psychology, and possible connections to the global goals.

Most likely, a larger number of strange looking or moving objects in the night sky, will lead to an increase in questions to astronomers about what people have seen. How should we answer, and is this an opportunity to inform?

Creating Dark Sky and Satellite Constellations Outreach Plan and Educational Resources: Highlights from IAU100 Heritage of the Sky Special Project
Saeed Jafari (Space Generation Advisory Council / Heritage of the Sky Project)

Heritage of the Sky was a Special Project of the IAU100 to raise awareness of dark skies as a vital element of cultural and natural heritage. The project advocated the preservation of dark skies by establishing the connection between amateur astronomers/astrophotographers and scholars/decision-makers focused on heritage conservation and environmental protection. These goals were achieved through strategic meetings and events with environmentalists and policymakers, as well as campaigns advocating dark sky preservation as a multifaceted tool for community building, cultural promotion, and heritage protection.

The topic explores the multifaceted role of outreach plans in engaging stakeholders, including astronomers, industry professionals, policymakers, and the general public. It emphasizes the need for collaboration and open dialogue between these groups to develop effective strategies that mitigate the adverse effects of satellite constellations on dark skies and astronomical research.

Furthermore, the poster delves into the importance of educational resources in enhancing awareness and knowledge about satellite constellations. It discusses the development of accessible materials, such as digital platforms, interactive tools, and multimedia content, aimed at educating students, teachers, and the wider community. These resources provide valuable information on the science behind satellite constellations, their implications for astronomical observations, and potential mitigation measures.

The project also highlights the role of educational resources in empowering individuals to become advocates for dark skies. By equipping the public with accurate information, these resources foster a sense of responsibility and inspire action to preserve and protect our night sky.

Changes to the upper atmosphere due to space activities
Aaron Boley (University of British Columbia)

We present a short overview of potential impacts that space activities can have on Earth’s upper atmosphere, with a focus on abundance loading due to rocket emissions and the ablation of space objects during reentry, particularly satellites. For certain elements, the deposition of material into the upper atmosphere can greatly exceed that from natural processes, such as from meteoroid ablation. Particular attention is given to aluminum and lithium abundance loading. The reentry process further creates NOx radicals that could impact upper atmosphere chemistry.

Rocket emissions also deposit a variety of materials into the upper atmosphere, including water, alumina, and soot. Soot is of concern for global energy balance, alumina for ozone depletion and possibly energy balance, and water for mesospheric cloud formation. Due to these alterations, even so-called “green” fuels can affect the upper atmosphere in non-trivial ways.

In connection to light pollution, we discuss how trace amounts of certain elements can affect night sky brightness, using Earth’s natural sodium layer as an example. We then return to the issue of lithium abundance loading from satellites and highlight this as a possible element of concern for night sky brightness impacts.

The combined contribution of rocket launches and space object returns is an environmental issue that should be monitored as the rate of launches and reentries increases.

The Satellite threat to Observational Astronomy
Priya Shah (Maulana Azad National Urdu University)
This poster will focus on the satellite threat to observational astronomy. As a member of the Satellite constellation Working Group: Observatories sub group a recommendation was drafted for the Dark and Quiet Skies 2 Report, which shall be discussed. I shall also discuss the SatHub and the Education of observers about satellite constellations for regular citizens, amateur astronomers and professional astronomers and the Outreach activities planned.
Systematic Impact of Incompletely Masked Satellite Streaks in Astronomical Images
Adam Snyder (University of California, Davis)
The proliferation of low Earth orbit satellites is expected to have a profound impact on ground based astronomical surveys such the Vera C. Rubin Observatory. If the satellite streaks in images are incompletely masked during image processing, the sharp residual features that occur can be misidentified as faint “bogus” galaxies that introduce systematic errors in cosmic shear measurements and limit science objectives of the survey. To study these effects we developed simulation tools to predict the surface brightness profiles of satellites imaged by the LSST Camera, based on satellite size, orbital parameters, and brightness. These were used to simulate the analysis of LSST 10-year coadded images to determine the conditions under which bogus galaxy detections occur and the distributions of the properties (shape, detections per satellite streak, and flux) of bogus galaxy populations.
Detection, identification and impact of LEO satellites constellations on SPECULOOS South observations
Sebastián Zúñiga Fernández (University of Liège)
Several hundreds of satellites have been deployed in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) intended to facilitate worldwide ethernet access communications, and several tens of thousands are planned for deployment in the incoming years by different international private companies. The increasing number of these type of satellites, together with their relatively low orbital heights and their ability to reflect sunlight, have started to impact astronomical observations. The brighter the satellites are, and the larger number of them, increases the chance for the mega constellations of LEO satellites to adversely affect astronomical science from ground-based observatories.
SPECULOOS (Search for habitable Planets EClipsing ULtracOOl Stars) aim to perform a transit search on the nearest (<40 pc) ultracool (<3000K) dwarf stars. The project is based on a network of 1 m robotic telescopes, namely the four ones of the SPECULOOS South Observatory (SSO) in Cerro Paranal, Chile, one telescope of the SPECULOOS North (SNO) in Tenerife, and the SAINT-Ex telescope in San Pedro Mártir, Mexico. According to our observing strategy, each night we observe continuously one or two targets per telescope, starting with sky flat observations at nautical twilight. Here, we report the results on the detection, identification and impact of LEO satellites in SSO observations and discuss the future work on mitigation and our plan to extend this analysis to our northern facilities.
Advanced Space Surveillance within ground-based optical system
Ahmed Magdy Abdelaziz Abdelrahman Moursi (National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geoghysics)
Space Surveillance refers to the series of activities that detect, track, estimate the orbit of, identify, and catalog artificial satellites, and space debris, including natural space objects. Of the basic types of observation technique for space objects is optical system which consist of optical telescoped attached with CCD camera. The method of tracking space objects by optical surveillance is known as photo-optical reading technique. In this technique, images of space objects and stars are shown at the same time. Then, proper image analysis can distinguish between the stars and space objects. When the distances of several basic stars around the space object are measured, they can be used to determine the direction of the space object’s motion. The primary goal of the Space Surveillance system is analyzing observational data and determining the final orbit of the observed space objects, to analyze the close approach between space objects satellites and/or debris, also estimate the probability of collisions between space objects, and to evaluate the space safety risk. We already have optical system consists of an optical telescope attached with a highly sensitive camera with a field of view in the range of (3.4˚ x 2.3˚). The main objective of this paper is to give scientific community imagination about the status of space objects researches and to provide most recent data for each new discovered object including orbital parameters, estimated standard magnitude and estimated area-to-mass ratio value. Those data can be included into existed space debris models as well as can be used for study of long-term orbital evolution, possible origin of the objects and collisions that could occur between these objects. Our work will also serve as some reference document for scientists and amateurs involved into those objects’ observations and data analysis. Operators of satellites on high geocentric orbits (mainly in GEO) can use this data in order to obtain more real description of situation around their orbital assets.
Astrometric error caused by inhomogeneous background
Anatoliy Ivantsov (Royal Observatory of Belgium)
Space situational awareness requires astrometric measurements for orbital determination and identification of moving objects. Both can be sensitive to various astrometric errors and the arc length observed. While the inhomogeneous background contributes to the light of the object, there is a symmetry break introduced to its image. In the case of the background gradient known at the place of the Gaussian image, we derived an analytic expression for the image bias in the direction of the gradient. The photocenter bias due to the inhomogeneous background is mostly affecting the positions of low signal-to-noise ratio sources. Wherever the background fluctuations are comparable to the fluxes accumulated for the faint stars, the solution found explains the exponential-looking degradation of the measurement error with respect to the magnitude. The latter allows getting the pure measurement errors and balancing the astrometric solution with the proper set of weights introduced.
A Modern Approach to Global Space Debris Monitoring
Hasmik Andreasyan (Tuparev Technologies, Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory)
With thousands of Satellites due to be launched over the coming decade, which will add to the already significant amount of objects in orbital regimes around the Earth, advanced and complete Space Situational Awareness (SSA) systems have never been more urgent. Although there are a growing number of suppliers of information on Satellite positions, orbits, and movements, many of these systems have their own limitations. We, Tuparev AstroTech and ASA AstroSysteme Austria, present our joint commercial SSA network currently under development. Our planned system aims to cover current weaknesses in SSA systems, while achieving a balance between accuracy and efficiency. We aim to have around 20 to 30 in-house and custom built SSA stations located in 6 worldwide observatories within this decade, designed and built for rapid deployment while reducing costs, with further, larger stations planned beyond this initial phase. Our software pipelines and architecture will optimise schedules using AI algorithms to account for a mixture of tracking and survey modes and observing conditions, run analysis in real-time, enable immediate follow-up of objects of interest, and efficiently store and allow easy access to petabytes worth of information on a bespoke archive system. The data products we are offering include tracking data messages and light curves in the initial stages which are currently being launched, with orbital prediction and collision warning systems planned at later stages of development. Also planned for the software system is automatic mining of the data for scientific research purposes and Near-Earth Objects.
Advances in experimental procedures for satellite modelling
Eduardo Unda-Sanzana (Astronomy Center (CITEVA), Universidad de Antofagasta)
The Astronomy Center (CITEVA) of the Universidad de Antofagasta manages the Ckoirama Observatory and the Astroengineering Laboratory of the Atacama Desert. The former is undergoing an expansion thanks to funding approved by the Chilean Science Agency (ANID) in 2022, with support from other Chilean universities, the Chilean Air Force, and the IAU CPS, so that a new satellite tracking station will begin operations in 2024, purposefully designed to collect reflected sunlight from satellites. The latter, on the other hand, is developing an experimental setup designed to test space-grade materials in order to contribute data to produce BRDF models of satellites. This poster will provide an introduction to both initiatives, an update on their current level of development, and first results.
Solar Radiation Pressure Effect On Geostationary Communication Satellite Using Spherical Model
Nindhita Pratiwi (Institut Teknologi Bandung)
Two dominant non-gravitational perturbations that act on satellite orbit, are atmospheric drag and solar radiation pressure. Therefore, analyzing the effect of solar radiation pressure need to be done. This research looks into geostationary communications satellite. To calculate solar radiation pressure on satellite, it needs data of solar flux, geometry of satellite, and solar geocentric vectors using TLE as input. Data processing is done by using FreeFlyer and Python. In this research we use spherical model in FreeFlyer. The spherical model is usually used to estimate the solar radiation pressure on relative simple objects. Based on the modeling, the results show that solar radiation pressure influences satellite orbital parameters, as indicated by the eccentricity changes and argument of perigee changes.
Optical observations of pre-main sequence stars from the Rozhen Observatory in Bulgaria
Evgeni Semkov (Institute of Astronomy and NAO, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria)

National Astronomical Observatory Rozhen is situated in the Rhodope Mountains at 1750 m altitude and it is a leading astronomical center in the South-East Europe. The observatory is equipped with four telescopes for optical observations: 2-m RCC telescope, 50/70 cm Schmidt telescope 60-cm Cassegrain telescope, and from this year also with a new robotic 1.5-m telescope. Since the Rhodope Mountains are one of the few places in Europe preserved from light pollution, we plan to develop optical observations in the future as well.

For several decades we have been performing photometric monitoring of some of the star formation regions. We consider that the study of photometric variability of pre-main sequence stars is of great importance in understanding stellar evolution. Significant place in our program take observations of FUor, EXor and UXor objects. These three types of young variable objects show changes in brightness with large amplitudes and attract the attention of star formation researchers.

But in recent years, bright traces of satellites have increasingly appeared in our CCD images. So far they are not much a problem since most of our objects and the standard stars around them are point objects of small apparent size. But in the future, the possible increase in the number and brightness of satellite tracks may affect the quality of the photometric data we receive.

A platform for Dark sky and Photography; A SINA's project
Saba Izadi (Member of Students' International Network for Astronomy)

The idea behind this platform has come from the interests in night sky photography and the importance of dark sky and clean observational sites in this activity. Students' International Network for Astronomy (SINA) is aiming to make a platform the international projects for students around the world in cooperation with other colleagues and groups.

The goal is to use the attraction of night sky photography to encourage students in learning about the problems that cause by light pollution and other impacts of this issue. In addition, it is a good idea that they will be able to learn about the methods of calculating the the pollution of the sky and how to decrease it.

Assessing the Interference of Mega-Constellations on Ground-Based Astronomy
Peter Breslin (Leiden University)
With the projected significant growth of mega-constellations in the near future, the presence of these vast Earth-orbiting satellite networks poses an increasing risk to ground-based observations. These constellations have the ability to contaminate regions of scientific interest with satellite 'trails', the brightnesses of which can reach magnitudes visible to the naked eye. This study aimed to investigate the potential interference caused by mega-constellations by enhancing satellite tracking routines and analyzing their orbital properties. Focusing on the Starlink satellite network as a representative case and utilizing observations from the MASCARA wide-field imaging array, we quantify the significant impact of mega-constellations on ground-based optical astronomy.
Spectral Evolution of Iridium Satellites Recorded by AMOS Spectral Camera System
Katarína Sabolová (Comenius University in Bratislava)
Spectroscopy of space objects is a method which can be utilised to retrieve the reflectance spectra of artificial satellites, providing valuable information about the surface properties and material composition of objects. However, repetitive spectral measurements of the same object show an unexplained change in the shape of the object’s spectral function. There are many possible factors causing this effect, such as the incidence angle of the incoming light and the amount of time the object had spent in the space environment. Smaller incidence angles and long exposure to space environment, known as space weathering, lead to an increase of reflectivity in longer wavelengths. This is referred to as the reddening effect, as the object’s surface appears redder in colour. Ideal candidates for the analysis of this effect are satellites of the same design launched in large quantities. In this case, satellites of the Iridium constellation were analysed. These defunct telecommunication satellites are enveloped in three large aluminium antennas oriented towards the Earth’s surface, creating bright, abundant glints in the night sky, called Iridium flares. The brightness of the Iridium flares reaches levels easily detectible by the human eye. Large satellite constellations are becoming significant contributors to light pollution in recent years, often leading to partial or complete corruption of obtained astronomical data. These constellations therefore prove to be interesting targets for spectral analysis. Spectral data of Iridium flares recorded by the world-wide AMOS network over the course of six years were analysed to provide further insight into the explanation of the reddening effect. AMOS – All-Sky Meteor Orbit System – developed by the Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Comenius University Bratislava, Slovakia, is a fully automated system of wide-angle optical and spectral cameras, capturing mainly meteor events, but bright artificial satellite glints as well. When a recorded object is identified as an Iridium satellite, the recording is processed, and object’s reflectance spectrum extracted. The slopes of the individual spectra are then compared in relation to the time spent in orbit, which is calculated from the launch date of the specific satellite and the date of the recording. In the end, the degree of correlation between the reddening effect and space weathering is determined.
Amateur Astronomers' Perspectives on Bright Satellites in the Age of Megaconstellations: Affected Observations and Willingness to Act
Vladimir Pashkovskii (StealthTransit)

The problem of LEO-satellite impact is now widely addressed in various studies and scientific publications produced by the global community of professional astronomers. This study, in contrast, focuses on the reaction of amateur astronomers and astrophotographers to the significant growth of the megaconstellations (mostly Starlink) and involves their community into the discussion.

The number of amateur telescopes in the world exceeds threefold the number of professional units, amounting to millions of units. The number of people who use these telescopes for regular observation (at least once a month) amounts to, according to the results, hundreds of thousands.

The first goal of the study was to estimate the extent of the impact of the satellites, which required assessing the size of the community that has suffered negative impact, its geography and distribution, the level of the impact, and the community's attitude to certain options for solving the problem.

The second element analysed in the study is the possibility for astronomical observations made using amateur telescopes to be considered part of the global scientific process of space exploration. Millions of amateur telescopes used for tens of millions of observation hours each month can provide broad and accurate data, including statistics and measurements. These observations can be used to verify mathematical models and hypotheses about objects in orbit, but also to organise a platform to protect critical scientific research.

The study was conducted between 2021 and 2022 through a survey of 350 people and a series of in-depth interviews with 13 participants. The sample was compiled based on the participants of one of the most popular Internet communities AstroBin ( Great importance was given to assessing the LEO-satellite impact on observations conducted by respondents. The respondents were offered a scale of 11 positions (from 0% to 100%).

Despite the fact that the sample was not tested to be representative, it included respondents from all continents and 41 countries. Most were from North America and Western Europe, reflecting the distribution of amateur astronomy globally. Survey participants observe a variety of near and distant space objects (from the Moon and planets to galaxies and asteroids), take pictures in various modes (exposures from fractions of seconds to 10 minutes or more), and devote from several to twenty nights each month to their hobby.

Statistical reliability of conclusions: measurement error is not more than ±7.5% at 95% confidence level.

The scientific community is currently focused on the development of new tools that will mitigate the impact of LEO-satellites on astronomy. Amateur telescopes, in turn, can be used as a quick and inexpensive way to test the effectiveness of these new tools and to develop optimal recommendations for their application to contexts of professional astronomy.

As the results of research show, astrophotographers face the problem of LEO-satellite impact on images of the night sky. For two-thirds of respondents (65%), the percentage of affected images is 20% or more.

There is a connection between the proportion of images affected by satellites and astrophotographer attitudes towards Starlink. The vast majority of respondents (81%) are moderate or radical opponents of the Starlink project. However, the community in general shows the whole spectrum of opinions ranging from "stopping the launch of satellites" to "continuing launches despite negative consequences."

The potential for public participation in scientific programs aimed at assessing the brightness and impact of LEO satellites on optical astronomy, as well as evaluating the effectiveness of mitigation methods, appears to be high.

The results formed the basis of the development of a rapid orbit recognition and satellite brightness determination system that can be installed on amateur telescopes. The integration of such telescopes into a global network will enable effective monitoring of bright satellites' behavior and the testing of new mitigation tools.

Exploring State-of-the-Art Atmospheric Drag Models for Precise Orbit Determination Software
Maria Tsakiri, Xanthos Papanikolaou, Dimitris Anastasiou (National Technical University Of Athens)

The increasing number of satellite missions, advancements in technology, and the availability of vast and high-quality data sets have led to the development of sophisticated and highly accurate models for Precise Orbit Determination (POD) processes. These models target to understand complex dynamics as well as intricate underlying processes, such as density variations in the high atmosphere, which have a significant impact on satellite motion.

In the realm of POD analysis, one of the most challenging non-gravitational forces affecting satellite dynamics is the atmospheric drag. This force acts in the opposite direction to the satellite's velocity with respect to the atmospheric flux and causes deceleration. Accurately modeling aerodynamic forces is a complex task, as it requires comprehensive knowledge of the physical properties of the upper atmosphere and the interaction with the satellite's surfaces.

The estimation of atmospheric drag relies heavily on the atmospheric density at the satellite's location, which necessitates the modeling of intricate properties and dynamics of Earth's atmosphere. The objective of this paper is to discuss the modeling aspects of atmospheric density in POD by implementing two recent models: the NRLMSISE-00 model, an empirical atmospheric model, and the DTM-2020 model, a semi-empirical Drag Temperature Model (DTM) specifically designed for predicting the temperature, density, and composition of Earth's thermosphere, particularly for orbit computation purposes. The paper elaborates on the implementation details of these two models in an in-house developed POD software and provides comparative results, along with a quality assessment using real data obtained from the satellite Jason-2.

Detection and Classification of Orbital Anomalies from TLE Files using ML Models
Hamid Idelbacha (University Cadi Ayyad)
Satellite and debris monitoring plays critical roles in ensuring the safety and functionality of space systems. In this abstract, we present an approach based on Machine Learning models to detect and classify orbital anomalies from Two-Line Element (TLE) files. With the growing number of satellites and space debris in Earth's orbit, the need for effective anomaly detection and classification has become crucial. Isolated Forest, LOOP, and One-Class SVM are used to identify abnormal orbital observation. These models detect anomalies caused by various factors, including propulsion problems, deliberate maneuvers, accidents, deliberate collisions, and battery problems. To classify these anomalies, we employ the classification methods of Random Forest, SVM, and neural networks. This classification step assigns the detected anomalies into specific categories based on their probable cause. The integration of Machine Learning techniques allows for the early detection of potential issues in space systems. By combining anomaly detection and classification in a Machine Learning framework, our approach provides a valuable tool for space agencies and operators to proactively identify and address orbital anomalies, contributing to the overall security and Sustainability of satellite missions.
Satellite trail prediction accuracy
Krzysztof Kamiński (Adam Mickiewicz University)
We present the analysis of the prediction accuracy of satellite trails' positions and brightness on optical astronomical images. For that purpose we use the Satellite Trail Predictor service, which utilizes a publicly available orbital catalog in two-line element (TLE) format from the US Space Force Space-Track service and satellite sizes data from the European Space Agency's (ESA) Database and Information System Characterising Objects in Space (DISCOS). We compare the predicted trail location and signal to noise ratio with a database of images recorded during multi-year observations of main belt asteroids from the Roman Baranowski Telescope located in Winer Observatory. The derived mean errors can be used as uncertainty estimations, which are famously missing in TLE orbits. This should allow more rigorous verification of suspected contamination of astronomical observations by an Earth's satellite.
A Catalogue of Radio Astronomy Stations Characteristics for Sharing and Compatibility Studies
Boris Sorokin (SKAO)

The International Astronomical Union's Centre For The Protection Of The Dark And Quiet Sky From Satellite Constellation Interference (IAU CPS) has recently embarked on an initiative to compile a comprehensive, publicly accessible catalogue of Radio Astronomy Telescopes. This database will provide pertinent details such as the geographical coordinates of these telescopes, their operational frequency bands, and some other information useful for sharing and compatibility studies - all accessible via a dedicated online portal. Its main objective is to offer an avenue for researchers and satellite operators alike to easily identify necessary parameters to carry out sharing and compatibility studies.

The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) has concurrently initiated a similar venture through the implementation of its innovative Space Explorer tool. It is recommended that researchers prioritize the utilization of the ITU tool given its direct correlation with the Master International Frequency Register (MIFR). However, the CPS catalogue, while initially deriving data from the Space Explorer (hence, the MIFR), has been designed to accommodate modifications coming directly from organisations responsible for radio astronomy sites rather than requiring them to go through standard filing procedures.

Given the extensive procedural requirements for updating the MIFR through the submission of amendment requests to the ITU via the relevant administration, the CPS database offers a more expeditious avenue for disseminating information regarding modifications or the establishment of new radio astronomy stations.

In summary, the concurrent development of these databases by the IAU CPS and ITU represents a significant advancement in the organization and accessibility of information pertaining to radio astronomy. They each serve unique purposes and, when used in tandem, offer a powerful, comprehensive resource for the global community.

Satellite Search Parties for Tracking, Community-building and Education
Diane Elaine Turnshek (CMU), Eric Fischer (AAAP)

Amateur astronomy satellite search parties (SSPs) are educational and collect data on numbers, orbital paths, and types of satellites. One of the largest amateur astronomy clubs in the nation, the Amateur Astronomers Association of Pittsburgh or AAAP (, has over 500 active members and two observatories far enough outside the city limits that the Milky Way can be viewed. Public star parties draw thousands of visitors a year. AAAP satellite viewing parties around the new moon started in 2014 and are conducted in June, July, and August when the angle of the Sun’s path is most favorable. The AAAP’s Nicholas E. Wagman Observatory is northeast of the city, so it has better viewing conditions since skyglow is lower in the direction where most satellites are visible after sunset. The sky must be free of smoke, clouds, and light pollution with good transparency, so that stars are visible down to +5 or +6 magnitude. The start time is set for the beginning of nautical twilight. The observing group does not use satellite tracking software to find satellites, only to confirm them. Observations are only tallied when confirmed by another observer.

When the SSPs began, the goal was to educate observers about the night sky. The first satellite spotted is announced to the group by naming the host constellation, asterism or nearest named bright star, and the object’s approximate magnitude. Concepts are explored, such as seasonal changes in Sun angles, characteristic of the Earth’s shadow, the inclination and precession of the orbital plane, and speed-at-altitude.

As the years pass and the number of visible satellites increases, SSPs have a duty to record findings. Ground observations of the sky have been shown to be effective by Kyba, et al. 2023 when the 9.6% increase in global skyglow readings was reported using the citizen science project Globe at Night. SSPs could fill a void in understanding how the sky is changing while bringing community members together and educating new amateur astronomers. A procedural manual is presented with questions to be answered for each observation, and difficulties in taking readings and establishing a baseline are discussed.

Christopher C. M. Kyba et al. Citizen scientists report global rapid reductions in the visibility of stars from 2011 to 2022. Science 379, 265-268 (2023). DOI: 10.1126/science.abq7781

Statistics of satellite trails from the TJO telescope
David Baroch i López (Montsec Observatory, IEEC)

Since the onset of the Space Race in the mid-twentieth century, astronomers have had to deal with a growing number of bright traces of satellites in their images. With the launch of large satellite constellations in the recent years, the number of astronomical images affected by bright trails is increasing exponentially, leading to the loss of valuable data.

In this poster we want to share how the increased number of satellites are affecting the astronomical images observed from the TJO, a fully robotic 0.8m telescope located at the Montsec Observatory, in Catalonia, devoted to astrophysics observing programs and SST activities. Thanks to our automated pipeline for data reduction and analysis, we are able to detect bright trails present among the more than 300k images stored in our archives between 2015 and 2023. This enabled us to compute statistics on the amount of telescope data affected by satellite-contamination, also studying the correlation with observing conditions and the evolution of such statistics over the last decade.

Education on Astronomy and Satellite Constellation
Tsolmon Renchin (National University of Mongolia)

Many universities and private companies produce and launch constellation satellites cheaply and quickly. They are furthermore sources of radio frequency interference affecting radio telescopes in near–Earth space. The problem is serious and International communities such as the International Astronomical Union have warnings about the impact of these satellite constellations. Students are developing small satellites with science motivation. Behind science, motivation is astronomy education. University students receive satellite images from constellation satellites for the sun and moon and they would like to take more images of space objects. They have less understanding that satellite constellations affect ground observations and pose to current and next-generation ground-based observations. The students who develop small satellites need more education and awareness on the future of astronomy and small satellites. For this, we need also to include a special session for the Remote Sensing conferences. Asian Remote Sensing meeting is positive to include a special session on future Small satellite applications and astronomy. Astronomical outreach activities also will be an excellent tool for this awareness.