## Detalles de publicación

PP 019031

## The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey XXXI. Radial velocities and multiplicity constraints of red supergiant stars in 30 Doradus

1. IAC,
2. ULL,
3. Department of Computer Science and Mathematics, European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC), Camino bajo del Castillo s/n, Urbanizacion Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28 692 Madrid, Spain
4. UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ, UK
5. Institute of astrophysics, KU Leuven, Celestijnlaan 200D, 3001, Leuven, Belgium
6. Departamento de F\'isica Te\'orica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, CP 1641, Natal, RN, Brazil
7. School of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA, UK
8. Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH, UK
9. Institut de Ci\`{e}ncies del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona, Mart\'{i} i Franqu\`{e}s 1, E08028 Barcelona, Spain
10. ICREA, Pg. Lluis Companys 23, 08010 Barcelona, Spain
11. Argelander-Institüt für Astronomie, Universität Bonn, Auf dem Hügel 71, D-53121 Bonn, Germany
12. Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX13RH, UK
13. Lennard-Jones Laboratories, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG, UK

The incidence of multiplicity in cool, luminous massive stars is relatively unknown compared to their hotter counterparts.Here we present radial velocity (RV) measurements and investigate the multiplicity properties of red supergiants (RSGs) in the 30~Doradus region of the Large Magellanic Cloud using multi-epoch visible spectroscopy from the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey.

Exploiting the high density of absorption features in visible spectra of cool stars, we use a novel slicing technique to estimate RVs of 17 candidate RSGs in 30~Doradus from cross-correlation of the observations with model spectra.

We provide absolute RV measurements (precise to better than $\pm$1\,\kms) for our sample and estimate line-of-sight velocities for the Hodge\,301 and SL\,639 clusters, which agree well with those of hot stars in the same clusters. By combining results for the RSGs with those for nearby B-type stars, we estimate systemic velocities and line-of-sight velocity dispersions for the two clusters, obtaining estimates for their dynamical masses of $\log (M_{\rm dyn}/M_{\odot})=$~3.8\,$\pm$\,0.3 for Hodge\,301, and an upper limit of $\log (M_{\rm dyn}/M_{\odot})<$~3.1\,$\pm$\,0.8 for SL\,639, assuming Virial equilibrium. Analysis of the multi-epoch data reveals one RV-variable, potential binary candidate (VFTS\,744), which is likely a semi-regular variable asymptotic giant branch star. Calculations of semi-amplitude velocities for a range of RSGs in model binary systems and literature examples of binary RSGs were used to guide our RV variability criteria. We estimate an upper limit on the observed binary fraction for our sample of 0.3, where we are sensitive to maximum periods for individual objects in the range of 1 to 10\,000 days and mass-ratios above 0.3 depending on the data quality. From simulations of the RV measurements from binary systems given the current data we conclude that systems within the parameter range q~$>$~0.3, $\log$P\,[days]~$<$~3.5, would be detected by our variability criteria, at the 90\% confidence level. The intrinsic binary fraction, accounting for observational biases, is estimated using simulations of binary systems with an empirically defined distribution of parameters where orbital periods are uniformly distributed in the 3.3~$<\log$P\,[days]~$<$4.3 range. A range of intrinsic binary fractions are considered; a binary fraction of 0.3 is found to best reproduce the observed data.

We demonstrate that RSGs are effective extragalactic kinematic tracers by estimating the kinematic properties, including the dynamical masses of two LMC young massive clusters.

In the context of binary evolution models, we conclude that the large majority of our sample consists of currently effectively single stars (either single or in long period systems). Further observations at greater spectral resolution and/or over a longer baseline are required to search for such systems.

Exploiting the high density of absorption features in visible spectra of cool stars, we use a novel slicing technique to estimate RVs of 17 candidate RSGs in 30~Doradus from cross-correlation of the observations with model spectra.

We provide absolute RV measurements (precise to better than $\pm$1\,\kms) for our sample and estimate line-of-sight velocities for the Hodge\,301 and SL\,639 clusters, which agree well with those of hot stars in the same clusters. By combining results for the RSGs with those for nearby B-type stars, we estimate systemic velocities and line-of-sight velocity dispersions for the two clusters, obtaining estimates for their dynamical masses of $\log (M_{\rm dyn}/M_{\odot})=$~3.8\,$\pm$\,0.3 for Hodge\,301, and an upper limit of $\log (M_{\rm dyn}/M_{\odot})<$~3.1\,$\pm$\,0.8 for SL\,639, assuming Virial equilibrium. Analysis of the multi-epoch data reveals one RV-variable, potential binary candidate (VFTS\,744), which is likely a semi-regular variable asymptotic giant branch star. Calculations of semi-amplitude velocities for a range of RSGs in model binary systems and literature examples of binary RSGs were used to guide our RV variability criteria. We estimate an upper limit on the observed binary fraction for our sample of 0.3, where we are sensitive to maximum periods for individual objects in the range of 1 to 10\,000 days and mass-ratios above 0.3 depending on the data quality. From simulations of the RV measurements from binary systems given the current data we conclude that systems within the parameter range q~$>$~0.3, $\log$P\,[days]~$<$~3.5, would be detected by our variability criteria, at the 90\% confidence level. The intrinsic binary fraction, accounting for observational biases, is estimated using simulations of binary systems with an empirically defined distribution of parameters where orbital periods are uniformly distributed in the 3.3~$<\log$P\,[days]~$<$4.3 range. A range of intrinsic binary fractions are considered; a binary fraction of 0.3 is found to best reproduce the observed data.

We demonstrate that RSGs are effective extragalactic kinematic tracers by estimating the kinematic properties, including the dynamical masses of two LMC young massive clusters.

In the context of binary evolution models, we conclude that the large majority of our sample consists of currently effectively single stars (either single or in long period systems). Further observations at greater spectral resolution and/or over a longer baseline are required to search for such systems.